Yes, you can do that. Just choose what particular sales data you want to open for viewing (order, sales reports and/or sales section) in System > Permissions > Roles > Role Resources. Category and product access can be configured on the Advanced: Categories and Advanced: Products tabs respectively.
Yes, we can confirm it can be achieved with Advanced Permissions. Please navigate to System > Permissions > Roles > Role Resources and choose “Orders” and any of the available actions for them:
And then on the Advanced: Scope tab you can choose store views or websites on which orders can be seen and/or edited. Apply Magento admin user to allow your admin users to edit only particular categories and products.
Yes, you can create a user role that is only allowed to view products in the catalog and not edit them. To achieve that, check “Manage Products” in System > Permissions > Roles > Role Resources and leave “Allow to Create and Edit Products” and “Allow to Delete Products” unchecked: